Data Analysis


Aquen analyses and interprets data via the application of rigorous statistical methods. Analysis can incorporate a range of ecophysiological variables as well as the presence/absence and numerical counts of fauna and flora to characterize and monitor changing habitats.

Commonly used statistical methods include:

Descriptive and summary statistics

- central tendency of sample data (means, median and mode) and their variation (Standard Deviation and Standard Error) displayed as graphs.

Diversity indices

- Species Richness & Evenness, Shannon-Wiener Index, Simpson Index.

Non-parametric tests

- Spearman's Rank Correlation, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon T test, Friedman test.

Parametric tests

- Pearson Correlation, Independent Measures t-test, One-way (independent measures) ANOVA, Match-pair t-test, One-way (repeated measures) ANOVA.

Multivariate Techniques

- MANOVA, MANCOVA, Principal Components and Common Factor Analysis, Multiple Regression, Multiple Discriminant Analysis, Canonical Correlation, Cluster Analysis, Multidimensional Scaling, Correspondence Analysis, Linear Probability Models (multiple regression and multiple discriminant analysis).